UPSC Special Class Railway Apprentices (SCRA) Examination
Length measurements using vernier, screw gauge, spherometer and optical lever. Measurement of time and mass. Straight line motion and relationships among displacement, velocity and acceleration.
Newton's Laws of Motion, Momentum, impulse, work, energy and power. Coefficient of friction.
Equilibrium of bodies under action of forces. Moment of a force, couple. Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Escape velocity. Acceleration due to gravity. Mass and Weight; Centre of gravity, Uniform circular motion, centripetal force, simple Harmonic motion. Simple pendulum.
Pressure in a fluid and its variation with depth. Pascal’s Law. Principle of Archimedes. Floating bodies, Atmospheric pressure and its measurement.
Temperature and its measurement. Wave motion; Longitudinal and transverse waves. Progressive and stationary waves, Velocity of sound in gas and its dependence on various factors. Resonance phenomena (air columns and strings).Thermal expansion, Gas laws and absolute temperature. Specific heat, latent heats and their measurement. Specific heat of gases. Mechanical equivalent of heat. Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics, Isothermal and adiabatic changes. Transmission of heat; thermal conductivity.
Reflection and refraction of light. Image formation by curved mirrors and lenses, Microscopes and telescopes. Defects of vision.
Prisms, deviation and dispersion, Minimum deviation. Visible spectrum.
Field due to a bar magnet, Magnetic moment, Elements of Earth’s magnetic field. Magnetometers. Dia, para and ferromagnetism. Electric charge, electric field and potential,
Electric current; electric cells, e.m.f. resistance, ammeters and voltmeters. Ohm’s law; resistances in series and parallel, specific resistance and conductivity. Heating effect of current.
Wheatstone’s bridge, Potentiometer. Magnetic effect of current; straight wire, coil and solenoid electromagnet; electric bell.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in magnetic field; moving coil galvanometers; conversion to ammeter or voltmeter.
Chemical effects of current; Primary and storage cells and their functioning, Laws of electrolysis.
Electromagnetic induction; Simple A.C. and D.C. generators. Transformers, Induction coil, Cathode rays, discovery of the electron, Bohr model of the atom. Diode and its use as a rectifier.
Production, properties and uses of Xrays. Radioactivity; Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays.
Nuclear energy; fission and fusion, conversion of mass into energy, chain reaction.
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